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Hakone Gardens Nomination to the Register of Historic PlacesSTATE OF CALIFORNIA — THE NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN, JR., Governor OFFICE OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND RECREATION P.O. BOX 942896 SACRAMENTO, CA 94296-0001 (916)445-7000 Fax: (916)445-7053 calshpo©parks.ca.gov www.ohp.parks.ca.gov February 22, 2012 Dave Anderson City manager/ City of Saratoga 13777 Fruitvale Avenue Saratoga, California 95070 RE: Hakone Garden Nomination to the National Register of Historic Places Dear Mr. Anderson: The Office of Historic Preservation (OHP) has received a nomination package to consider the above referenced property for the National Register of Historic Places (National Register). The National Register is the official list of the Nation's cultural resources worthy of recognition and preservation. The nomination identifies you as the property's owner of record. A copy of the nomination is enclosed for your information. OHP will review the nomination for accuracy and completeness. The current nomination is a preliminary draft subject to change upon completion of the OHP review. The property will be reviewed in accordance with the eligibility criteria for the National Register program. If the nomination is complete and the property meets the National Register criteria, OHP will schedule the nomination for hearing by the State Historical Resources Commission (Commission). The Commission is a nine member body appointed by the Governor to evaluate the eligibility of properties for listing on registration programs. The Commission meets four times a year. Please review the draft nomination. If you are opposed to the nomination, you are requested to submit a notarized letter of objection to the above address. Please see the enclosed instructions on how to support or oppose designation. If the nomination is presented to the Commission for hearing, this office will notify you of the date and location of the meeting. The meetings are open to the public and you may attend to present comments. Or, you may wish to submit written comments directly to OHP fifteen days before the Commission meeting. Time, date, and location of scheduled Commission meetings are also posted on the OHP website at www.ohp.parks.ca.gov. Information on the National Register program is also posted on the website. Please do not hesitate to contact the Registration Unit at (916) 445-7008 should you have further questions on the nomination or the National Register program. Milford Wayne D naldson, FAIA State Historic Pr ervation Officer Enclosures: Nomination and How to Object/Support STATE OF CALIFORNIA - THE NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN, Governor OFFICE OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND RECREATION 1725 23'° Street, Suite 100 SACRAMENTO, CA 95816-7100 (916) 445-7000 Fax: (916) 445-7053 calshpo@parks.ca.gov NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES HOW TO SUPPORT OR OBJECT TO LISTING Under federal law, a privately owned property may not be listed in the National Register over the objection of its owner or, in the case of a property with multiple owners, over the objection of a majority of owners. A district may not be listed in the National Register over the objection of a majority of owners of private property within the proposed district. Each owner or partial owner of private property has one vote regardless of what part of the property that person owns. Within a district, each owner has one vote regardless of how many buildings he or she owns. If a majority of private property owners should object, the property or district will not be listed. However, in such cases, the State Historic Preservation Officer is required to submit the nomination to the Keeper of the National Register for a determination of eligibility for the National Register. If the property or district is determined eligible for listing, although not formally listed, it will be given the same protection as a listed property in the federal environmental review process. A property determined eligible for listing is not eligible for federal tax benefits until the objections are withdrawn and the property is actually listed. The laws and regulations regarding this process are covered in the National Historic Preservation Act Amendments of 1980 and in 36 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations), Part 60. Supporting a National Register Nomination: Private owners who seek National Register listing for their properties are not required to submit statements of concurrence. However, letters of support, from owners or any others, are welcomed and become a permanent part of the nomination file. Objecting to a National Register Nomination: If you object to the listing of your property, you will need to submit a notarized statement certifying that you are the sole or partial owner of the property, as appropriate, and that you object to the listing. Owners who wish to object are encouraged to submit statements of objection prior to the meeting of the State Historical Resources Commission at which the nomination is being considered. However, statements of objection may be submitted and will be counted up until the actual date of listing. Listing usually takes place 45 days after the nomination is mailed to the Keeper of the National Register following the State Historical Resources Commission meeting. Send letters of support or objection to: State Historic Preservation Officer Office of Historic Preservation 1725 23rd Street, Suite 100 Sacramento, CA 95816-7100 Revised January 24, 2011 NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) United States Department of the Interior National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form. JAN 1 zi 2012 This form is for use in nominating or requesting determinations for individual properties and districts. See ins {factions -in -National-Register aulletm, How to Complete the National Register of Historic Places Registration Form. If any item does not apply to the property being documented, enter "N/A" for "not applicable." For functions, architectural classification, materials, and areas of significance, enter only categories and subcategories from the instructions. Place additional certification comments, entries, and narrative Items on continuation sheets if needed (NPS Form 10.900a). 1. Name of Property historic name Hakone other names/site number Hakone Gardens 2. Location street & number 21000 Big Basin Way city or town Saratoga state California NA NA not for publication vicinity code CA county Santa Clara code 085 zip code 95070 3. State/Federal Agency Certification As the designated authority under the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended, I hereby certify that this nomination request for determination of eligibility meets the documentation standards for _ _ registering properties in the National Register of Historic Places and meets the procedural and professional requirements set forth in 36 CFR Part 60. In my opinion, the property meets does not meet the National Register Criteria. 1 recommend that this property _ _ be considered significant at the following level(s) of significance: national statewide local Signature of certifying official/Title Date State or Federal agency/bureau or Tribal Government In my opinion, the property _ meets does not meet the National Register criteria. Signature of commenting official Date Title State or Federal agency/bureau or Tribal Government 4. National Park Service Certification I hereby certify that this property is: _ entered in the National Register _ determined eligible for the National Register determined not eligible for the National Register _ removed from the National Register other (explain:) Signature of the Keeper Date of Action United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Santa Clara, CA Name of Property County and State Narrative Description (Describe the historic and current physical appearance of the property. Explain contributing and noncontributing resources if necessary. Begin with a summary paragraph that briefly describes the general characteristics of the property, such as its location, setting, size, and significant features.) Summary Paragraph Hakone Gardens is located west of Saratoga on the south side of Big Basin Way. The property contains a series of gardens and related buildings that were constructed between 1917 and 1991 using traditional Japanese design principles, methods and materials. Hakone Gardens has four main gardens: the Hill and Pond Garden, the Zen Garden, the Tea Garden and the Bamboo Garden; as well as four principal structures: the Upper House, the Lower House, the Tea Waiting Pavilion, and the Main Gate or Mon. The two earliest gardens, the Hill and Pond Garden and the Tea Garden (1917-18), are a combination of the traditional Japanese tea garden (Roji) and stroll garden (Chisen-kaiyu). The Hill and Pond Garden and the Tea Garden link the three contributing buildings, the Upper House, the Lower House, and the Tea Waiting Pavilion, together into an integrated and well -designed landscape. The Zen Garden (1922) adjacent to the Lower House is an example of a karesansui (or dry mountain water) garden. The period of significance for Hakone Gardens is 1917-1941. This property has been the subject of a recent evaluation by the California Department of Transportation. Those DPR523 forms are included in the provided CD's. Narrative Description Hakone Gardens consists of almost 16 acres of land located approximately a half mile west of the City of Saratoga on the south side of Route 9, which is also known as Big Basin Way. The gardens, associated buildings, structures and grounds are spread across three different parcels. The long entry drive providing access to and from Route 9 is located on APN: 517-36-011. The parking lot is located on APN: 517-36-010, and the main gardens and related facilities are located on APN: 517-36-010. The gardens are located at the top of a steep hillside located along the south side of Route 9. The hillside between the highway and the gardens is heavily wooded with native oak trees and dense brush. The highway is not visible from the gardens, and the closest building, the Cultural Exchange Center, is about 375 feet south of the highway. Hakone Gardens is located in a U-shaped bowl at the top of the hillside, and is ringed by hills to the west and south. The asphalt parking lot is located east of the gardens. A triangular service area is located between the gardens and the parking lot. The service area contains a small parking area for staff, a new restroom building, the garden caretaker's cottage, a small well/pump house and a converted barn that the Hakone Foundation uses for office space and storage. A tall bamboo and wood fence screens the service area from the gardens to the west and northwest. The roofs of modern residences east of the main parking lot are not visible from the main garden areas. There is a small gift shop and tea service room located at the north end of the parking lot opposite the main entrance to the gardens. Entry to the gardens is through a turnstile located United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024.0016 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Santa Clara, CA Name of Property County and State place in the mid -to -late 190. century.) Other plants native to California on the hillside in the Hill and Pond Garden include California Holly, California lilac, buckeye and elderberry. The Tea Garden is located northeast of the Upper House and forms a curved boundary between the Hill and Pond Garden, and the nearby Zen Garden. The Tea Garden (See photo 9) contains many mature plants and trees, including Japanese maples, hinoki cypress, wisteria vines and black pine that were imported from Japan by the Stines between 1915 and 1917. The Zen Garden (1922) is a dry landscape garden (Karesansui) of rock and gravel, combined with isolated areas of hardy landscaping. It is located just northeast of the Tea Garden and forms a side yard for the Lower House (See photo 21). According to Hakone Foundation records, most of the plants in the Zen Garden date back to the original 1922 installation. It is fenced -off on two sides from the rest of the facility, providing physical and visual privacy. A small square building, the Tea Waiting Pavilion, is located in the Tea Garden (See photos 5 and 22). The Tea Waiting Pavilion was built in 1927 and is used to prepare forthe tea ceremony, which originally, would have been held in the Upper House. (Since the early 1980s, tea ceremonies and related classes have been held in the nearby Lower House.) The Tea Waiting Pavilion is a plain and simple structure and is furnished only with wood benches inside. It has no windows or screens, but is open to the air. The interior and exterior wood surfaces are unpainted and have been allowed to weather naturally. The Zen Garden is located along the south and west facades of the Lower House, which, since the early 1980s, has been used for tea ceremony demonstrations. After it was built in 1922, the Lower House was used by the Stine family as their summer residence, and the Zen Garden would have been highly visible from its open veranda or engazva. Throughout the gardens, many original plant and tree specimens remain, while more delicate shrubs, mosses and flowers are occasionally replaced as necessary. Hakone Gardens also contains religious and ritual items including a metal crane sculpture, stone and metal lanterns, stone and wood basins, and individual natural and carved rocks, which are symbolically important in Japanese culture. Some of these are original, but some have also been added to the gardens after they became public. Following Japanese tradition, these items, while important in their own right, are secondary to the design of Hakone Gardens. Ritual garden objects at Hakone include the Master Stone and the Worshiping Stone, and a stone washing basin, or chozadnachi. Stone can be used in Japanese gardens as religious or symbolic objects, or as visually aesthetic objects that have unique shape, color, massing and weight. (Depending on the age, location, or type of Japanese garden, stone and groupings of stones can be either prominent features of the garden, or they can play a secondary role.) At Hakone, the Master Stone is placed in a visually prominent position in the Hill and Pond garden, about a third of the way up the slope south of the pond, to the right of the main waterfall. The best view of the Master Stone is from the island in the Koi Pond. The Worshiping Stone is located on the southeast edge of the island, and lines up with the Master Stone when the viewer faces south. With these two stones in view, the balanced, yet asymmetric arrangement of the main elements within the Hill and Pond garden becomes obvious. (The design of Japanese gardens is often based on the Scalene triangle, which is has sides of unequal length.) Tucked out of view, but still present, is a third "stone", a shallow stone basin located just United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB Na 1024.001E (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Santa Clara, CA Name of Property County and State garden, the Dry landscape (Karesansui) garden, and the Tea House (Roji) garden. At Hakone, the Hill and Pond garden is most similar to the Pond type of garden. The Hill and Pond Garden utilizes both man-made and the surrounding natural topography. In the case of Hakone, the setting of the Hill and Pond garden is dramatic. As in the traditional pond garden, water is at the center of the garden. The Hill and Pond garden is arranged around a central pond. A small waterfall and adjacent lily pond help to integrate the surrounding landscape in with the pond. The Zen garden is a classic dry landscape garden consisting of raked gravel and rock, contained within an enclosure, which is also traditional. The Zen garden is the most private of the gardens at Hakone. The Tea garden at Hakone is modeled on the Roji tradition, and contains many quiet and serene views. The Tea garden also forms a buffer or transition zone between the static, flat calm of the Zen Garden and the rolling and varied landscape of the Hill and Pond garden. The three main buildings at Hakone that are associated with its early development between 1917 and 1941, the Upper House, the Lower House, the Tea Waiting Pavilion; and two associated service buildings (the caretaker's cottage and the well/pump house) were all built using traditional methods of Japanese carpentry. The three main buildings in particular, were designed around the original use of the garden as a private retreat that was often used for recreation based on traditional Japanese plays and opera, as well as for the tea ceremony. Hakone Gardens also contains multiple structures such as the Wisteria Pavilion, the Moon Bridge, the Mon, the Upper Pavilion and the Wisteria Arbor, that make full enjoyment of the landscape possible. All of these are modeled on the type of structures found in traditional Japanese gardens. Symbolic and ritual objects are also important elements of the landscape at Hakone. These include multiple types of traditional lanterns, sculpture, religious objects and carefully placed boulders and stones. Each of the three main gardens at Hakone contains unique species of plants that are also typical of traditional gardens found throughout Japan. At Hakone, the buildings, structures and objects have all been carefully and artfully integrated with the larger landscape that surrounds them. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Santa Clara, CA Name of Property County and State Period of Significance (justification) The period of significance of Hakone ranges from 1917 when Isabel Stein started construction of the three main gardens: the Hill and Pond Garden, the Tea Garden and the Zen Garden; and the construction of the Upper House, the Lower House and the Tea Waiting Pavilion, until 1941, with the Reconstruction of the Moon Bridge and construction of the Main Gate or Mon and adjacent fenced walkway. Other structures were constructed on the site after 1941 and they are compatible to the historic setting. Construction History: • 1917 to approximately 1929 under Isabel Stine. (Construction of the three main gardens: the Hill and Pond Garden, the Tea Garden and the Zen Garden; and the construction of the Upper House, the Lower House, and the Tea Waiting Pavilion.) • 1932 to approximately 1950 under Major Charles Tilden. (Reconstruction of the Moon Bridge and construction of the Main Gate or Mon and adjacent fenced walkway between 1939 and 1941.) • 1950 to 1966 under a private foundation of local Japanese and Chinese families. (Minor refurbishment and repairs of gardens and buildings.) • 1966 to 1984 uricffir the City of Saratoga. (Improvements to allow better public access including construction of the parking lot, new lighting and other related infrastructure. The City of Saratoga hired Kyoto -trained landscape gardener Tanso Ishihara in 1966 to restore and refurbish the original main gardens, and to construct a series of trails on the hillside south and west of the main garden area. • 1984 to present under the Hakone Foundation. (Installation of the Bamboo Garden in 1987 and the Cultural Exchange Center in 1991.) Architect: 1. Tsunematsu Shintani (1877-1921) Designer of the Upper House, the Lower House and possibly the Tea Waiting Pavilion. 2. Naoharu Aihara (1870-1941) Landscape designer of the three main gardens: the Hill and Pond Garden, the Tea Garden, and the Zen Garden. 3. Shinzaburo and Gentaro Nishiura. (Reconstruction of Moon Bridge and construction of the Main Gate or Mon between 1939 and 1941. 9 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0019 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Santa Clara, CA Name of Property County and State State of California Resources Agency's conclusion: Findings and Conclusions There are currently no properties within the project area that are listed in the National Register of Historic Places. There are no properties that have been previously determined eligible for listing in the National Register in the project area. There is one resource, Bridge No. 37-0078 located in Location 3 at PM 6.7 on Route 9 (Big Basin Way) that has been evaluated and determined not eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places (See Appendix I. Bridge Evaluation Sheet). The bridge is also not considered a significant resource under CEQA. One resource in the project area, Hakone Gardens, was evaluated for the purposes of the project. Hakone Gardens, which is located at 21000 Big Basin Way, is eligible for the National Register under criteria A and C at the state level of significance. It is a significant resource tinder CEQA. The following property has been determined eligible for inclusion in the National Register as a result of this study: Name Address Community OHP Status Code Map Ref. No. Hakone Gardens 21000 Big Basin Way, Saratoga, CA. 3S MR 1 1 Hakone Gardens at 21000 Big Basin Way (Route 9) is eligible for the National Register of Historic Places under criteria A and C at the state level of significance. The period of significance for the property is 1917-1941, during which the three main gardens and all contributing buildings and structures were built. Hakone Gardens was built during a period of renewed trade and communication between Japan and America, as well as during a period of dramatic cultural exchange. Prior to 1868, Japan did not trade openly with the west and westerns in Japan were openly persecuted. At the dawn of the Meiji era (1868-1912), trade and communication with the west was once again allowed, and from that point on, Japan became a modern nation. Hakone was only possible due to the political and social changes that took place in both Japan and America during the Meiji era. Hakone Gardens was designed and built by talented Japanese designers and craftsmen, and during the late 1930 and early 1940s, a second generation of Japanese talent modified and added to the gardens. Hakone Gardens is unique in California and is a significant designed landscape that contains multiple contributing buildings and structures that embody high artistic values. The boundary for Hakone Gardens follows the limits of three parcels leased by the Hakone Foundation, APN: 517-36-009, APN: 517-36-010 and APN: 517-36-011. The contributing landscape includes three original gardens, the Hill and Pond Garden, the Tea Garden, and the Zen Garden. (The Bamboo Garden, which was constructed in the late 1980s, is not a contributing landscape, nor is the steep wooded slope located north of the garden adjacent to Route 9.) Contributing buildings include the United States Department of the Interior National Park Service 1 National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Santa Clara, CA Name of Property County and State original construction of the garden, including the Upper House, the Lower House, and the Tea Waiting Pavilion. Related structures include the Main Gate, the Moon Bridge, the Upper Pavilion, the Wisteria Arbor and the Wisteria Pavilion, all of which are contributing structures. Two ancillary structures, the caretaker's cottage and a small well or pump house, were built during the period of significance and are also contributing structures. Integrity The gardens and buildings that contribute to Hakone Gardens possess a high degree of integrity. The Hill and Pond Garden, the Tea Garden and the Zen Garden still retain most of the elements of their original design, although some plants have been replaced over the years. Hakone Gardens contains original plant and tree specimens, as well as others that have been used to replace diseased or dead specimens. For the earlier Hill and Pond Garden, Tea Garden and Zen Garden, replacement plants have been chosen to match the original plantings as closely as possible. (The Bamboo Garden was added to Hakone Gardens in 1987.) The hillside paths and trails above the main gardens, which include viewing areas, were built in the mid -to -late 1960s when the City of Saratoga owned the gardens. The pond and waterfall were refurbished during the same time period, but remained in their original orientation and placement. The Upper House has been maintained over the years, and is little altered. The interior of the structure is intact and contains the four main elements associated with the traditional shoin-zukuri style; the tokonoma (decorative alcove), chigaidana (staggered shelves), tsukeshoin (desk alcove) and chodaigamae (decorative doors), as well as sliding shoji screens and tatami mats. The scale of the structure and the materials used however, also represent the sukiya-zukuri, which was later evolution of the shoin-zukuri as it was influenced by the tea ceremony. The Lower House, which was used as a summer residence by the Stine family until about 1929, was modified in the early 1980s to accommodate tea ceremony classes and demonstrations. The original rustic redwood siding was removed and stucco applied to the exterior surfaces of the Lower House, although the structural post and beam members are still visible. The original open veranda and porch were enclosed using modern plate glass and wood shoji screens, and the wood window details removed. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0015 (Expires 5/31(2012) Hakone Gardens Santa Clara, CA Name of Property County and State tivas built following shoin-zukuri and sukiya-zukuri design principles, but which also provided the family with three western -style bedrooms, a bathroom and a fireplace. Tananese Garden Design History The tradition of Japanese garden design extends over at least a thousand years, and was influenced by ancient Shinto religious traditions and Chinese garden design theory, as well as the philosophy and practice of Buddhism. which was imported into Japan around 550 AD. An ancient Japanese word for garden, niwa, was first used to identify a sanctified natural area that had been designated for the worship of Shinto gods. Early "gardens" in Japan were locations that possessed a special feature such as a rock outcropping, a copse of trees, or other natural object that was revered for its kan2i, or sprit. These natural areas became shrines over time and were usually designated by a torii gate, but were not enclosed by walls or fences. By about 600, the concept of "garden" as a designed, non- agricultural cultivated space began to develop in Japan, mainly due to Chinese influences. Ancient Shinto shrines still retained their power, but some traditional elements of kan2i, especially in terms of the placement of stones and boulders, were carried forward into newer gardens designs in Japan. Generally, there are four types of traditional Japanese garden: the pond (Chisen-shuyu) garden, the dry landscape (Karesansui) or Zen garden, the tea (Roji) garden, and the stroll (Chisen-kaiyu) or "many pleasure" garden. Each of these unique garden types evolved over a span of many years, and date their emergence and maturity to specific periods in Japanese history. Pond gardens (Chisen-shuyu) were the first traditional Japanese garden type to be recognized as unique to Japan. Chisen-shuyu gardens were quite large and contained at least one pond, or a series of ponds, and a series of manmade islands meant to be viewed from the water. Examples of chisen- shuyu gardens date from the Heian Period (794-1185) and were built for members of the aristocracy. During the Heian era, political power shifted away from a centralized form of government down to local landowners, many of whom commissioned sprawling gardens around their estates. Heian era gardens were influenced by the Shinto belief that all natural objects contained elements of "kami", or god -like sprits. A greater influence during this era were the contemporary gardens being designed in China at the time, as well as imported Chinese artwork, including paintings, prints and textiles, which often featured striking garden and landscape images. Boating, fishing, listening to music, poetry writing, and other forms of cultured entertainment, as well as "moon viewing", were popular Heian Period pastimes. The Heian pond garden remained popular in Japan throughout the Kamakura Period (1192-1333), but shifts in garden aesthetics during the later era was a reflection of the increasing population, a growing military (samurai) class, as well as the powerful influence of Zen Buddhism. Gradually, the focus of Japanese gardens during the Kamakura Period became more visual and less oriented toward physical outdoor activity. During this era, it became common for gardens to be designed by priests or ishitateso, which literally means "rock -placing monk". Garden United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Santa Clara, CA Name of Property County and State an appropriate environment for the tea ceremony, which usually took place in a building separate from the main residence. Overall, the Roji garden was much less stark than the karesansui garden, and freely utilized both natural and manmade landscape features. Water features such as ponds, streams and waterfalls, were still important, but were not the focus of nature -based observation and activity as they had been in the Heian era pond gardens. The Roji garden had a teahouse (sukiya), and the layout of the garden was designed to prepare the participants for the beauty and rigor of the tea ceremony. Entry into the garden was formal, usually through a gate or portal. In the Roji, the experience of the garden was based on its role as the physical context for the tea ceremony. Roji gardens often took advantage of so-called "borrowed views" or shakkei, by including distant scenic vistas or landscapes in the visual field of the garden. Contrast between various materials and scales used in the Roji garden are subtle and fine-grained, as high contrast or too much detail was thought to distract participants from the proper enjoyment of the tea ceremony. Stone lanterns, metal sculpture and religious objects could be found in the Roji garden, but they were used with restraint. The last of the traditional gardens is the Stroll or Chisen-kaiyu (many pleasure) garden. The stroll garden was first associated with the Edo Period (1603-1867), but its popularity extended into the Meiji Period (1868-1912). In contrast to previous eras, the Edo was peaceful and economically prosperous. A national capital was established at Tokyo (Edo) and international trade and diplomatic relations with the West were curtailed. (Trade with the West was reinitiated in 1858 at the end of the Edo Period.) Due to the lack of external influences, traditional Japanese art and culture were perfected during the Edo era. Previous historic eras were romanticized, and the arts often contained literal references to the legends and myths of the past. Buddhist influences began to wane during the Edo Period and aspects of the ancient Shinto religion were revived during the Meiji Period. The stroll garden was a synthesis of all of the previous types, the pond, the dry landscape, and the tea garden. The stroll or chisen-kaiyu garden was also larger than either the tea or the dry landscape garden. The stroll garden also added a new element to traditional Japanese landscape, the framed view. This was done by carefully placing trees, or other vertical objects, in order to "frame" views within the garden. A Chisen-kaiyu garden might include a formal, dry landscape karesansui, or it might just include a patch of raked gravel in homage. The stroll garden often contained scaled -down elements of the pond garden, but these features did not need to be seen from a boat. The chisen-kaiyu contained elements of the Roji tea garden, attesting to the continued importance of the tea ceremony to Japanese culture. However, the stroll garden emphasized just that- the pleasurable activity of strolling. Paths were designed to control progress through the garden, as well as to close and open up views into nearby areas. The use of stepping -stones, which had previously been purely functional, became an art. In the stroll garden, a stepping -stone could be a single well placed rock at mid -stream, or one in a series of stones leading through areas paved with gravel or planted with grass. Ceremonial and symbolic objects such as religious statues and sculptures were included in the stroll garden, and placed in prominent positions at path terminations and intersections. As in the Roji, a pond often provided open space at the center of the stroll garden, as well as a mirror -smooth surface to reflect 17 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Santa Clara, CA Name of Property County and State officials during the exhibition. The Japanese gardens covered over three acres and contained hundreds of boulders weighing over a ton each, and a few -weighing more than three tons. The boulders, plants, garden ornaments, and other material, including 25,000 square feet of turf, were shipped in from Japan at great expense. The Japanese gardens at the Panama -Pacific featured bronze Buddhas, miniature pagodas, iron and stone lanterns and sculpted cranes. The gardens included over 1,200 trees and 4,000 smaller "rare and curious" plants of various species including irises, dwarf (Bonsai) juniper, Japanese cedars, miniature Magnolia trees, Japanese maples, an assortment of bamboo, and a two -century old wisteria tree. The main pavilion and several nearby structures contained displays of Japanese art and industry, including one that focused solely on the mysterious silk -making process. Of note was the large model of the Shrines at Nikko, which depicted the main temple and surrounding buildings, including the tombs of famous Shoguns. At the north end of the Japanese garden, two "broad -roofed and inviting" teahouses were among the most popular refreshment concessions at the 1915 San Francisco exposition. The teahouses served the dual purpose of exposing Westerners to Japanese commerce, as well as Japanese culture, albeit in a modified context. Japanese tea was not merely dispensed to the visitor, as the exposition teahouses had been designed specifically to accommodate the elaborate and lengthy tea ceremony, and the requisite preparation, brewing, and serving of the tea was beautifully demonstrated. As with any traditionally designed Japanese building, the layout of each of the tearooms was oriented to take advantage of the best seated views of the nearby gardens. Currently, there are over two hundred traditional Japanese gardens in the United States, at least ten of which are located in California. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, traditional Japanese gardens were introduced physically to the west via four main venues. These were the exposition Japanese garden, the public park or arboretum Japanese Garden, the commercial teahouse and Japanese garden, and the private estate Japanese garden. After World War II, most public Japanese gardens in the United States were built as "friendship" gardens. Traditional Japanese gardens have been featured at multiple international expositions held in the United States, including the Philadelphia Centennial in 1876, the Chicago Columbian in 1893, the San Francisco Mid -Winter in 1894, the 1901 Panama -American in Buffalo, the 1904 Louisiana Purchase in St. Louis, the 1909 Alaska -Yukon in Seattle, and the 1915 Panama -Pacific in San Francisco, the 1915-16 California -Pacific Exposition in San Diego, and the 1939-1940 Golden Gate International Exposition on Treasure Island. In the early years of the 20th century, commercial tea gardens were popular in the United States, although few apparently remain, at least not in original form. In California, a commercial tea garden was built in Moraga Canyon near Piedmont around 1890 as part of an amusement park, but was torn down in 1915. Nearby, at Piedmont Springs Park, tea and cakes were served "Japanese style" in a teahouse built in 1906, but the teahouse was torn down when the area was subdivided in 1922. A Japanese teahouse was built (c 1907) as part of Alum Rock Park in San Jose, but it was the victim of ant Asian prejudice when the Anti -Japanese and Corean (sic) League petitioned for its removal in 1912. Noted San Francisco collector and retailer of Japanese art and artifacts, George T. Marsh, built commercial tea gardens (c 1905-12) in Pasadena and at Coronado, near San Diego. For a short period 19 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Santa Clara, CA Name of Property County and State and Electric Company, and subdivided. In 1992, the Eugene De Sabra Japanese Tea House and Garden were listed on the National Register of Historic Places for national significance in landscape architecture. The landscape design of the Eugene De Sabha garden is attributed to Makota Hagiwara, who designed the gardens and also worked as gardener and caretaker of the Japanese gardens in Golden Gate Park for many years after the exposition closed. The resource consists of 10 acres, one building (tea house) and two structures that are part of an extensive garden. The next to oldest public Japanese garden in California is likely the Japanese Garden at the Huntington Library Botanical Gardens of San Marino, in Southern California. The nine -acre garden was established between 1911 and 1912, when buildings that had been constructed for a commercial teahouse in nearby Pasadena were moved onto the Huntington Gardens site. (Ironically, the teahouse and garden that were moved from Pasadena on to the Huntington property had originally been built around 1903 by George Turner "GT" Marsh, the same person responsible for the Japanese Tea Garden at the 1894 Midwinter Expo in San Francisco, and a similar commercial tea garden in Coronado, near San Diego.) The Huntington Japanese gardens feature a high -arched moon bridge, a dry rock garden, delicate mosses, plants and other garden features salvaged from the original commercial tea garden, and a two-story frame "tea house" that is vaguely Queen Anne/Eastlake in style. The Japanese garden in San Diego dates from the 1915-1916 Panama -California Exposition. The Japanese government had funded and built an impressive pavilion and tea garden at the 1915 Panama -Pacific Exposition in San Francisco, and did not contribute exhibits to the smaller, regional fair that was held during 1915 and 1916 in San Diego. The Japanese Garden in Balboa Park, which was centered around a large, rectangular teahouse, was built by the Japanese Tea Association and was solely commercial in nature. The Japanese garden included bamboo, wisteria, bonsai, cedar and ginko trees, as well as a moon bridge. The teahouse was modeled on the temples of Kyoto, and bore no resemblance to traditional Sukiya-zukuri (tea ceremony) teahouses actually found in Japan. The Japanese Garden at Balboa Park still exists, although its original layout and plantings have been extensively altered and modified over the intervening years. At the time the Mrs. Stine was planning her family summer retreat in Saratoga, there was a commercial Japanese Garden nearby on the Saratoga -Los Gatos Road that had been built around 1902. Known as Nippon Mura, it had a tea garden and guest cottages that were for rent during the summer season. Nippon Mura has been largely paved over and most of the original site is occupied by a modern hotel and parking lot. A few miles east of Saratoga in Los Gatos, an approximately two - acre private estate and garden, Kotarii-En, was begun around 1918 San Francisco businessman, Max M. Cohen. Kotani-En contains a "classical Japanese residence in the formal style of a 131h century estate" with tile -roofed walls, a teahouse, a shrine, and gardens and ponds. The buildings were designed and constructed using traditional Japanese methods following shinden- uku,-i (temple style) and shoin-zukuri (library or study style) architecture principles. In contrast to Hakone, the buildings 21 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Santa Clara, CA Name of Property County and State 9. Major Bibliographical References Bibliography: Anderson, Winslow 1892 Mineral Springs and Health Resorts of California. Bancroft and Company, San Francisco, California Brown, Kendall H. 2008 Fair Japan: Japanese Gardens at American World's Fairs, 1876-1940. Foundation for Landscape Studies, New York, NY (Published in the FLS Journal, Site Lines, Vol. IV, No.1, Fa112008) Brown, Thomas A. 2008 Japanese Plants: The Yokohama Connection. California Garden and Landscape History Society (Published in the CGHS Journal, Eden: Vol. II, No. 2, Summer 2008) Butler, Phyllis Filbert' 1975 The Valley of Santa Clara: Historic Buildings, 1792-1920. Presidio Press, Novato, California Carey and Company, Inc. 2006 San Jose Japantown Historic Context and Reconnaissance Survey, San Jose, California. Carey and Company, Inc. San Francisco, California Condor, Josiah 1964 Landscape Gardening in Japan. Dover Publications Inc. New York, New York (First published in 1893) Cronise, Titus F. 1868 The Natural Wealth of California. H.H. Bancroft and Company, San Francisco, California Crook, James K., A. M., M.D. 1899 The Mineral Waters of the United States and Their Therapeutic Uses. Lea Brothers & Company, New York, NY and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Cunningham, Florence R 1967 Saratoga's First Hundred Years. Harlan YoLutg Press, San Jose, California 23 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Santa Clara, CA Name of Property County and State Gudde, Edwin G. and William Bright 2004 California Place Names: The Origin and Etymology of Current Geographical Names. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California Ishihara, Tanso, and Gloria Wickham 1974 Hakone Garden. Published by: Kawara Shoten Takakura-Sanjo Nakagyo-Ku, Kyoto, Japan Ishimoto, Tatsuo 1958 The Art of the Japanese Garden. Crown Publishers Inc., New York, New York Ishimoto, Yasuhiro (with foreword by Kenzo Tange) 1972 Katsura: Tradition and Creation in Japan. Yale University Press, New Haven CT, and New York, NY. Ito, Taiichi and Mieko Kawarada 2000 Environmentalism in Landscape Architecture. (Published as Vol. 22 in the series, Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture.) Durnbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington D.C. Jard rta, Elizabeth 2002 A Worthy Garden to Help Their Granddaughter. (Regarding the De Sabla Tea House and Garden, San Mateo, CA) Oakland Tribune, April 12, 2003. Published by the Alameda News Group, a subsidiary of Media News Group Lancaster, Clay 1963 The Japanese Influence in America. Walton H. Rawls, Publisher, New York, New York. Lipsky, William 2002 San Francisco's Midwinter Exposition. Arcadia Publishing, Mount Pleasant, South Carolina Maggi, Franklin with Leslie Masunaga 2007 Report on Historical Status of the Hirasaki-Sakai Ranch in Gilroy, California. Prepared by Archives and Architecture, Heritage Resource Partners, LLC, San Jose, California 25 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service 1 National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Santa Clara, CA Name of Property County and State Paulson, L. L. 1875 Hand -Book and Directory of Santa Clara, San BYnitn Santa Cn n, Monterey and San Mateo Comities. Francis and valentine, Commercial Steam Presses, San Francisco, California Pohle, Bruce (Editor) 1987 Sunshine, Fruit and Flowers: Santa Clara County and its Resources, Historical, Descriptive, Statistical - A Souvenir of the San Jose Mercury (1896). Reprint by the San Jose Museum Association, San Jose, California Santa Clara County Board of Supervisors 1999 Santa Clara County Heritage Resource Inventory. (For Kotani- En and the Sakai Ranch) Santa Clara County Historical Heritage Commission, Santa Clara County, California Sawyer, Eugene T. 1922 History of Santa Clara County, California. Historic Record Company Los Angeles, California Sears, Mary Ann and Carol Kavalaris 2007 Report of Historical Significance of the Country Japanese Lantern Donated to the Sausalito Woman's Club by Shirley Gross- April 5, 2007 Sausalito Woman's Club, Sausalito, California Smith, Mary 2009 DPR report California Department of Transportation - Resources Agency Spickard, Paul 2009 Japanese Americans: The Formation and Transformation of an Ethnic Group. Rutgers University Press, Rutgers, New Jersey Starr, Kevin 2006 Beyond Gtunp's: The Unfolding Asian Identity of San Francisco. (Published in USF journal, Pacific Rim Report No. 39, June 2006) University of San Francisco USF Center for the Pacific Rini Starr, Kevin 2002 Embattered Dreams: California in War and Peace, 1940-1950. • Oxford University Press, US. 27 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service 1 National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5131/2012) Hakone Gardens Santa Clara, CA Name of Property County and State National Register of Historic Places(www.nationaLreUisttrofhistori.cp]ace.corn) Pescadero Memories, Archive for Pacific City/Coyote Point (www.pescaderomemories.com) Roads and Vehicle Markers (www.hmdb.org) San Jose History (www.sanjose.com) Santa Clara County California -Historic Silicon Valley, A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary (www.nps.vov) Santa Clara County Historical and Genealogical Society (www.rootsweb.ancestrv.com Santa Clara County Planning Office (www.phn.sccgov.org) Santa Clara Valley History -San Jose Public Library (www.sjlibrary.org) Santa Clara Valley Water District (www.scvwd.dst.ca.us) Saratoga Historical Foundation (www.saratoeahistorv.com) Saratoga Chamber of Commerce (www.saratoga-ca.com) Save America's Treasures(www.saveaineri.castreasures.org) Silicon Valley History Online (www.content.scu..edu) University of California at Berkeley, Calisphere, Bancroft Library, Lone Mountain College Collection, Image No. 606-609 and 611. (www.content.cdlib.org) University of California at Los Angeles (www.jananesegarden.ucla.edu) Previous documentation on file (NPS): x preliminary determination of individual listing (36 CFR 67 has been requested) previously listed in the National Register x previously determined eligible by the National Register designated a National Historic Landmark recorded by Historic American Buildings Survey # recorded by Historic American Engineering Record # recorded by Historic American Landscape Survey # Primary location of additional data: State Historic Preservation Office Other State agency Federal agency x Local government — City of Saratoga University Other Name of repository: Caltrans Historic Resources Survey Number (if assigned): HP — 88 — 01 NRHP Status 252, 2D2 :i 9 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Santa Clara, CA Name of Property County and State Property Owner: (Complete this item at the request of the SHPO or FPO.) name City of Saratoga street & number 13777 Fruitvale Ave. city or town Saratoga Dave Anderson / City Manager telephone (408) 868-1216 state CA zip code 95070 Paperwork Reduction Act Statement: This information is being collected for applications to the National Register of Historic Places to nominate properties for listing or determine eligibility for listing, to list properties, and to amend existing listings. Response to this request is required to obtain a benefit in accordance with the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended (16 U.S.C.460 et seq.). Estimated Burden Statement: Public reporting burden for this form is estimated to average 18 hours per response including time for reviewing instructions, gathering and maintaining data, and completing and reviewing the form. Direct comments regarding this burden estimate or any aspect of this form to the Office of Planning and Performance Management. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, 1849 C. Street, NW, Washington, DC. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Name of Property Santa Clara, CA County and State CONTINUATION SHEET Layout: Map C:ourze8:V o Hakone-Foundatian / / / / 33 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form. NPS Form 10.900 OMB No. 1024-0016 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Name of Property Santa Clara, CA County and State CONTINUATION SHEET PHOTO LOG (CONTINUED): Photoft/Page Description 15 50 Fall season view northwest looking toward Moon Bridge at stone Snow Viewing lantern. 16 51 Fall season view west at stepping -stones placed at the base of the waterfall. (Upper House is in the background.) 17 52 Spring view Northwest across koi pond toward Moon Bridge. (Wisteria Pavilion is on the right.) 18 53 Spring view south from koi pond island toward waterfall. 19 54 Spring View northeast at Upper House. 20 55 View southwest at Upper House interior that features traditional tatami mats and decorative alcove. 21 56 View southwest from Zen garden toward Upper House. (Lower House is immediately to the right.) 22 57 View northeast from Upper Pavilion toward Tea Waiting Pavilion. (Lower House is in the background.) 23 58 View south at Caretaker's Cottage in service area. 24 59 View east at Well / pump House located in service area west of parking lot. ALL PHOTOS Property: County/State Photographer: Date of Photos: Location/Negative: Descriptions: Numbers: Hakone Santa Clara County, California Mary Smith Fall photos/OCT 2008, spring photos/MAY 2009 Digital file with Cal Trans On photo log On photo log an top of photos 35 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Name of Property Santa Clara, CA County and State CONTINUATION SHEET PHOTO 1: Fall season view looking west across koi pond toward Upper House. 36 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No.1024-0018 (Expires 5131I2012) Hakone Gardens Name of Property Santa Clara, CA County and State CONTINUATION SHEET PHOTO 3: Fall season view northeast from Wisteria Pavilion pathway at Main Gate or Mon. 38 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Name of Property Santa Clara, CA County and State CONTINUATION SHEET PHOTO 5: View northwest at Tea Waiting Pavilion. 40 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Name of Property Santa Clara, CA County and State CONTINUATION SHEET PHOTO 7: I Itill l lltl1 i 'IIII,I II 1II III�1II II ll�li,1 Fall season view up Tea Garden path south at north facade of Upper House. 42 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Name of Property Santa Clara, CA County and State CONTINUATION SHEET PHOTO 9: Fall season view northwest at Japanese maple tree in the Tea Garden. 44 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Name of Property Santa Clara, CA County and State CONTINUATION SHEET PHOTO 11: View south at Jizo Bodhisattoa located east of the waterfall and south of the Koi pond in the hill and Pond Garden. 46 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5131 /2012) Hakone Gardens Name of Property Santa Clara, CA County and State CONTINUATION SHEET PHOTO 13: Fall season view northwest at Japanese maple tree at the edge of the Tea Garden (Tea Waiting Pavilion in the background.) 48 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No.1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Name of Property Santa Clara, CA Count; and State CONTINUATION SHEET PHOTO 15: Fall season view northwest looking toward Moon Bridge at stone Snow Viewing lantern. 50 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Name of Property Santa Clara, CA County and State CONTINUATION SHEET PHOTO 17: Spring view Northwest across koi pond toward Moon Bridge. (Wisteria Pavilion is on the right.) 52 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service 1 National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Name of Property Santa Clara, CA County and State CONTINUATION SHEET PHOTO 19: Spring View northeast at Upper House. 59 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NP5 Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Explres 5(31/2012) Hakone Gardens Name of Property Santa Clara, CA County and State CONTINUATION SHEET PHOTO 21: View southwest from Zen garden toward Upper House. (Lower House is immediately to the right.) 56 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 (Expires 5/31/2012) Hakone Gardens Name of Property Santa Clara, CA County and State CONTINUATION SHEET PHOTO 23: View south at Caretaker's Cottage in service area. 58